ANSWER KEY With Sollution: UPSC Civil Services Preliminary Exam 2016 General Studies Paper – 1

​1) With reference to ‘stand up India scheme’, which of the following statement is/are correct?

1. Its purpose is to promote entrepreneurship among SC/ST and women entrepreneurs.

2. It provides for refinance through SIDBI.

Select the correct answer using the code given below.

(a) 1 only

(b) 2 only

(c) Both 1 and 2

(d) Neither 1 nor 2

Solution: C

Justification: Straight forward question.

The scheme promotes entrepreneurship among SC/ST and Women entrepreneurs, and facilitates at least two such projects per bank branch.

The Stand Up India Scheme provides for refinance window through Small Industries Development Bank of India (SIDBI) with an initial amount of Rs. 10,000 crore. So, 2 is correct.

http://pib.nic.in/newsite/PrintRelease.aspx?relid=134220

2) The FAO accords the status of ‘Globally Important Agricultural Heritage System (GIAHS)’ to traditional agricultural systems. What is the overall goal of this initiative?

1. To provide modern technology, training in modern farming methods and financial support to local communities of identified GIAHS so as to greatly enhance their agricultural productivity

2. To identify and safeguard eco-friendly traditional farm practices and their associated landscapers, agricultural biodiversity and knowledge systems of the local communities

3. To provide Geographical Indication status to all the varieties of agricultural produce in such identified GIAHS

Select the correct answer using the code given below.

(a) 1 and 3 only

(b) 2 only

(C) 2 and 3 only

(d) 1, 2 and 3

Solution: B

Justification: Statement 1 and 2: In order to safeguard and support the world’s agri-cultural heritage systems, in 2002 FAO started an initiative for the dynamic conservation of Globally Important Agricultural Heritage systems (GIAHS). So, clearly modern practices wouldn’t be relevant to the initiative. 1 is incorrect.

Statement 2: The initiative intends to safeguard the social, cultural, economic and environmental goods and services of these heritage systems. So, 2 is correct.

Statement 3: There is no such provision. GI is accorded to products from a certain origin (e.g. Hyderabadi Biryani) and not to traditional agricultural systems.

http://www.fao.org/giahs/giahs-home/en/

3) Which of the following is/are tributary/tributaries of Brahmaputra?

1. Dibang

2. Kameng

3. Lohit

Select the correct answer using the code given below.

(a) 1 only

(b) 2 and 3 only

(c) 1 and 3 only

(d) 1, 2 and 3

Solution: D

Justification: http://www.india-wris.nrsc.gov.in/wrpinfo/index.php?title=Brahmaputra

4) The term ‘Core Banking Solutions’ is sometimes seen in the news. Which of the following statements best describes/describe this term?

1. It is a networking of a bank’s branches which enables customers to operate their accounts from any branch of the bank on its network regardless of where they open their accounts.

2. It is an effort to increase RBI’s control over commercial banks through computerization.

3. It is a detailed procedure by which a bank with huge non- performing assets is taken over by another bank.

Select the correct answer using the code given below.

(a) 1 only

(b) 2 and 3 only

(c) 1 and 3 only

(d) 1, 2 and 3

Solution: A

Justification: Statement 1: Core Banking Solution (CBS) is networking of branches, which enables Customers to operate their accounts, and avail banking services from any branch of the Bank on CBS network, regardless of where he maintains his account. Clearly, 1 is correct.

Statement 2 and 3: They are absurd and can easily be eliminated.

http://www.bankofbaroda.co.in/cbs.asp

5. Consider the following pairs:

Terms sometimes Their origin seen in the news

1. Annex—I Countries : Cartagena Protocol

2. Certified Emissions Reductions : Nagoya Protocol

3. Clean Development Mechanism : Kyoto Protocol

Which of the pairs given above is/are correctly matched?

(a) 1 and 2 only

(b) 2 and 3 only

(c) 3 only

(d) 1, 2 and 3

Solution: C

Justification: Statement 1: Annex-I countries are related to Kyoto Protocol. See http://unfccc.int/kyoto_protocol/items/3145.php

Statement 2: A certified emission reduction (CER) is generated from a clean development mechanism (CDM) project activity. See http://unfccc.int/kyoto_protocol/mechanisms/clean_development_mechanism/items/2718.php

Statement 3: Same link as above.

6. In the context of the developments in Bioinformatics, the term ‘transcriptome’, sometimes seen in the news, refers to

(a) a range of enzymes used in genome editing

(b) the full range of mRNA molecules expressed by an organism

(c) the description of the mechanism of gene expression

(d) a mechanism of genetic mutations taking place in cells

Solution: B

Justification: A transcriptome is the full range of messenger RNA, or mRNA, molecules expressed by an organism.

The term “transcriptome” can also be used to describe the array of mRNA transcripts produced in a particular cell or tissue type.

In contrast with the genome, which is characterized by its stability, the transcriptome actively changes.

In fact, an organism’s transcriptome varies depending on many factors, including stage of development and environmental conditions.

http://www.nature.com/scitable/definition/transcriptome-296

7. ‘Mission Indradhanush’ launched by the Government of India pertains to

(a) immunization of children and pregnant women

(b) construction of smart cities across the country

(c) India’s own search for the Earth-like planets in outer space

(d) New Educational Policy

Solution: A

Justification: http://pib.nic.in/newsite/PrintRelease.aspx?relid=114103

8) Which of the following best describes/ describe the aim of ‘Green India Mission’ of the Government of India?

1. Incorporating environmental benefits and costs into the Union and State Budgets thereby implementing the `green accounting’

2. Launching the second green revolution to enhance agricultural output so as to ensure food security to one and all in the future

3. Restoring and enhancing forest cover and responding to climate change by a combination of adaptation and mitigation measures

Select the correct answer using the code given below.

(a) 1 only

(b) 2 and 3 only

(c) 3 only

(d) 1, 2 and 3

Solution: C

Justification: The mission intends to increase forest/tree cover; improve/enhance eco-system services and to increase forest based livelihood income of about 3 million households. So, rest other statements (other than 3) are thus wrong.

http://www.envfor.nic.in/major-initiatives/national-mission-green-india-gim

9) With reference to pre-packaged items in India, it is mandatory to the manufacturer to put which of the following information on the main label, as per the Food Safety and Standards (Packaging and Labelling) Regulations, 2011?

1. List of ingredients including additives

2. Nutrition information

3. Recommendations, if any, made by the medical profession about the possibility of any allergic reactions

4. Vegetarian/non-vegetarian

Select the correct answer using the code given below.

(a) 1, 2 and 3

(b) 2, 3 and 4

(c) 1, 2 and 4

(d) 1 and 4 only

Solution: C

Justification: Straightforward question. Information about Allergic reactions is NOT mandatory on the food packets.

http://www.fssai.gov.in/Portals/0/Pdf/Food%20Safety%20and%20standards%20(Packaging%20and%20Labelling)%20regulation,%202011.pdf

10. ‘Project Loon’, sometimes seen in the news, is related to

(a) waste management technology

(b) wireless communication technology

(c) solar power production technology

(d) water conservation technology

Solution: B

Justification: Project Loon aims to help connect remote regions of the world to the internet via a network of balloons floating in the sky beaming internet.

http://economictimes.indiatimes.com/tech/internet/google-may-get-government-nod-to-conduct-pilot-for-project-loon-in-india/articleshow/52408455.cms

11. ‘Net metering’ is sometimes seen in the news in the context of promoting the

(a) production and use of solar energy by the households/consumers

(b) use of piped natural gas in the kitchens of households

(c) installation of CNG kits in motor-cars

(d) installation of water meters in urban households

Solution: A

Justification: Net metering is a billing mechanism that credits solar energy system owners for the electricity they add to the grid, if you generate more energy (from household solar rooftops) than you consume in home.

http://www.mass.gov/eea/grants-and-tech-assistance/guidance-technical-assistance/agencies-and-divisions/dpu/net-metering-faqs.html

12. India’s ranking in the ‘Ease of Doing Business Index’ is sometimes seen in the news. Which of the following has declared that ranking?

(a) Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD)

(b) World Economic Forum

(c) World Bank

(d) World Trade Organization (WTO)

Solution: C

Justification: http://economictimes.indiatimes.com/definition/ease-of-doing-business

13. Banjaras during the medieval period of Indian history were generally

(a) agriculturists

(b) warriors

(c) weavers

(d) traders

Solution: D

Justification: There were many different tribal groups in Medieval India. Some were hunter-gatherer nomads.

One such type of nomadic group was that of the banjaras.

They were the most important trader-nomads during the medieval period.

Their caravan was called tanda. Sultan Alauddin Khaljls market regulation system could become successful pnmanly because of the fact that he relied heavily on the banjaras to transport grains to the city markets.

http://tinyurl.com/j7ejmq8

14. Who of the following had first deciphered the edicts of Emperor Ashoka?

(a) Georg Bilhler

(b) James Prinsep

(c) Max Muller

(d) William Jones

Solution: B

Justification: Factual but straightforward https://www.cs.colostate.edu/~malaiya/ashoka.html

15) With reference to the ‘Gram Nyayalaya Act’, which of the following statements is/are correct?

1. As per the Act, Gram Nyayalayas can hear only civil cases and not criminal cases.

2. The Act allows local social activists as mediators/reconciliators.

Select the correct answer using the code given below.

(a) 1 only

(b) 2 only

(c) Both 1 and 2

(d) Neither 1 nor 2

Solution: B

Statement 1: It tries both Civil and Criminal cases. So, 1 is wrong.

Statement 2: We are quoting from the Gram Nyalayas Act, 2008

“27. (1) For the purposes of section 26, the District Court shall, in consultation with the Appointment District Magistrate, prepare a panel consisting of the names of social workers at the village level having integrity for appointment as Conciliators who possess such qualifications and experience as may be prescribed by the High Court.”

So, clearly 2 is correct.

http://doj.gov.in/sites/default/files/gramnyayalayas_0.pdf

16) With reference to the ‘Trans-Pacific Partnership’, consider the following statements :

1. It is an agreement among all the Pacific Rim countries except China and Russia.

2. It is a strategic alliance for the purpose of maritime security only.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

(a) 1 only

(b) 2 only

(c) Both 1 and 2

(d) Neither 1 nor 2

Solution: D

Justification: Statement 1: It involves 12 pacific-rim countries: the US, Japan, Malaysia, Vietnam, Singapore, Brunei, Australia, New Zealand, Canada, Mexico, Chile and Peru.

It’s no an agreement between ALL the Pacific Rim except Russia & China. Only 12 out of nearly 50+ Pacific Rim countries are part of it.

Statement 2: It is a trade bloc. So, 2 is wrong.

https://ustr.gov/tpp/

17. Consider the following statements :

The India-Africa Summit

1. held in 2015 was the third such Summit

2. was actually initiated by Jawaharlal Nehru in 1951

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

(a) 1 only

(b) 2 only

(c) Both 1 and 2

(d) Neither 1 nor 2

Solution: A

Justification: India-Africa Summit started in 2008 (first summit) is one of the most spectacular diplomatic exercises hosted by India since the 1983 Non Aligned Movement (NAM) summit.

Second and third summit were held in 2011 and 2015. So, 1 is correct and 2 is wrong.

http://www.idsa.in/idsacomments/3rd-india-africa-forum-summit_rberi_291015

18) What is/are the purpose/purposes of the `Marginal Cost of Funds based Lending Rate (MCLR)’ announced by RBI?

1. These guidelines help improve the transparency in the methodology followed by banks for determining the interest rates on advances.

2. These guidelines help ensure availability of bank credit at interest rates which are fair to the borrowers as well as the banks.

Select the correct answer using the code given below.

(a) 1 only

(b) 2 only

(c) Both 1 and 2

(d) Neither 1 nor 2

Solution: C

Justification: It is the new benchmark lending rate at which banks will now lend to new borrowers.

Statement 1: MCLR will be calculated after factoring in banks’ marginal cost of funds (largely, the interest at which banks borrow money), return on equity (a measure of banks’ profitability), and other risks and costs.

The MCLR should be revised monthly by considering some new factors including the repo rate and other borrowing rates.

Specifically the repo rate and other borrowing rates that were not explicitly considered under the base rate system.

Banks will also publically publish all kinds of MCLR periodically.

This will surely bring transparency in the calculation methodology. So, 1 is correct.

The RBI expects the new formula to make floating lending rates more responsive to its policy rate cuts.

Statement 2: Based upon this MCLR, interest rate for different types of customers should be fixed in

accordance with their riskiness . So, it become fair to both borrowers as well as lenders.

https://rbi.org.in/SCRIPTs/BS_PressReleaseDisplay.aspx?prid=35749

 19) What is/are unique about ‘Kharai Camel’, a breed found in India?

1. It is capable of swimming up to three kilometres in seawater.

2. It survives by grazing on mangroves.

3. It lives in the wild and cannot be domesticated.

Select the correct answer using the code given below.

(a) 1 and 2 only

(b) 3 only

(c) 1 and 3 only

(d) 1, 2 and 3

Solution: A

Justification: Statement 1 and 2: It can swim up to three kilometers into the sea in search of mangroves, its primary food.

The breed population has declined drastically in recent years due to loss of mangroves.

Statement 3: Given the breed’s ability to survive both on land and sea, the Kharai camel is one of the most preferred choices of graziers in the arid coastal region of Kachchh.

People consume its milk, while male calves are sold for economic returns (females are not sold because they are considered sacred). So, clearly they are domesticated and don’t live in the wild. Statement 3 is wrong.

Gujarat is the only home to Kharai camel.

http://www.downtoearth.org.in/coverage/the-sinking-ship-40705

20. Recently, our scientists have discovered a new and distinct species of banana plant which attains a height of about 11 metres and has orange-coloured fruit pulp. In which part of India has it been discovered?

(a) Andaman Islands

(b) Anaimalai Forests

(c) Maikala Hills

(d) Tropical rain forests of northeast

Solution: A

Justification: Musa indandamanensis, a sweet species of banana with orange pulp, has been discovered in the islands of Andamans.

The banana species was found by a team of scientists from the Botanical Survey of India (BSI) from the Krishna Nalah tropical rain forest on the islands.

It has also been reported by the scientists that the discovered species is thrice the size of a regular banana species

http://indiatoday.intoday.in/education/story/banana-species/1/498242.html

21. Which one of the following is the best description of ‘INS Astradharini’, that was in the news recently?

(a) Amphibious warfare ship

(b) Nuclear-powered submarine

(c) Torpedo launch and recovery vessel

(d) Nuclear-powered aircraft carrier

Solution: C

Justification: It is Indian Navy’s first totally indigenously-designed and built torpedo launch and recovery vessel.

http://www.thehindu.com/news/national/ins-astradharani-commissioned/article7730364.ece

22. What is ‘Greased Lightning-10 (GL-10)’, recently in the news?

(a) Electric plane tested by NASA

(b) Solar-powered two-seater aircraft designed by Japan

(c) Space observatory launched by China

(d) Reusable rocket designed by ISRO

Solution: A

Justification: As per the NASA Website, it is in testing and development phase.

The website says. “Imagine a battery-powered plane that has 10 engines and can take off like a helicopter and fly efficiently like an aircraft. That is a concept being developed by NASA researchers called Greased Lightning or GL-10.”

http://www.nasa.gov/langley/ten-engine-electric-plane-completes-successful-flight-test

23) With reference to ‘Initiative for Nutritional Security through Intensive Millets Promotion’, which of the following statements is/are correct?

1. This initiative aims to demonstrate the improved production and post-harvest technologies, and to demonstrate value addition techniques, in an integrated manner, with cluster approach.

2. Poor, small, marginal and tribal farmers have larger stake in this scheme.

3. An important objective of the scheme is to encourage farmers of commercial crops to shift to millet cultivation by offering them free kits of critical inputs of nutrients and micro-irrigation equipment.

Select the correct answer using the code given below.

(a) 1 only

(b) 2 and 3 only

(c) 1 and 2 only

(d) 1, 2 and 3

Solution: C

Justification: It was launched under the Rashtriya Krishi Vikas Yojana in 2011-12 for promotion of millets as Nutri-cereals.

Statement 1: It has been picked verbatim from the source mentioned below.

Statement 2: Certain districts with large crop area under millets but with productivity less than that of the National Average Yield could be taken up for active promotion of production technologies through block demonstrations.

However, in case of small millets, which have low productivity in general and are taken by resource poor tribal farmers in remote interior areas, production programme would be organized in all the identified districts irrespective of their productivity levels.

So, clearly 2 is correct.

Statement 3: The statement is partially wrong.

We are posting verbatim – “Technology demonstration kits of critical inputs of nutrients and plant protection measures comprising of micro-nutrients (not micro-irrigation equipments), fungicides and bio-fertilizers, DAP, urea, potash and pesticides including weedicides at a total cost of Rs. 3,000/- per ha for sorghum, pearl millet and finger millet and Rs. 2,000/- per ha for small millets would be supplied to all the farmers in the units.

These kits would be supplied free of cost to the beneficiary farmers subject to maximum area of 2 hectare.

So, 3 will actually be wrong, because even though the kits are given free of cost, it does not include micro-irrigation equipments.

http://agricoop.nic.in/Admin_Agricoop/Uploaded_File/INSIMP.pdf

24. The `Swadeshi’ and ‘Boycott’ were adopted as methods of struggle for the first time during the

(a) agitation against the Partition of Bengal

(b) Home Rule Movement

(c) Non-Cooperation Movement

(d) visit of the Simon Commission to India

Solution: A

Justification: Straightforward answer.

25) With reference to the religious history of India, consider the following statements :

1. The concept of Bodhisattva is central to Hinayana sect of Buddhism.

2. Bodhisattva is a compassionate one on his way to enlightenment.

3. Bodhisattva delays achieving his own salvation to help all sentient beings on their path to it.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

(a) 1 only

(b) 2 and 3 only

(c) 2 only

(d) 1, 2 and 3

Solution: B

Justification: Statement 1: It is central to the Mahayana sect of Buddhism.

In non-Mahayana Buddhism, it usually refers either to Maitreya, the Buddha of the Future, or to the historical Buddha Gautama prior to his enlightenment.

Statement 2 and 3: A bodhisattva is literally a living being (sattva) who aspires to enlightenment (bodhi) and carries out altruistic practices. The bodhisattva ideal is central to the Mahayana Buddhist tradition as the individual who seeks enlightenment both for him- or herself and for others. Clearly 2 is correct.

Compassion, an empathetic sharing of the sufferings of others, is the bodhisattva’s greatest characteristic.

It is held that the bodhisattva makes four vows expressing a determination to work for the happiness of others: “However innumerable sentient beings are, I vow to save them; however inexhaustible the passions are, I vow to master them; however limitless the teachings are, I vow to study them; however infinite the Buddha-truth is, I vow to attain it.”

Clearly 3 is correct.

http://www.sgi.org/about-us/buddhism-in-daily-life/bodhisattva.html

26. ‘Doctors Without Borders (Medecins Sans Frontieres)’, often in the news, is

(a) a division of World Health Organization

(b) a non-governmental international organization

(c) an inter-governmental agency sponsored by European Union

(d) a specialized agency of the United Nations

Solution: B

Justification: It is an international humanitarian-aid non-governmental organization (NGO) and Nobel Peace Prize laureate, best known for its projects in war-torn regions and developing countries facing endemic diseases.

It was founded in France in response to the Biafran War (Nigerian Civil War).

http://www.doctorswithoutborders.org/about-us

27) With reference to an initiative called ‘The Economics of Ecosystems and Biodiversity (TEEB)’, which of the following statements is/are correct?

1. It is an initiative hosted by UNEP, IMF and World Economic Forum.

2. It is a global initiative that focuses on drawing attention to the economic benefits of biodiversity.

3. It presents an approach that can help decision-makers recognize, demonstrate and capture the value of ecosystems and biodiversity.

Select the correct answer using the code given below.

(a) 1 and 2 only

(b) 3 only

(c) 2 and 3 only

(d) 1, 2 and 3

Solution: C

Justification: Statement 1: The founding of TEER is actually a bit elaborate. It started from the G8+5 environment ministers since 2007. You can read more about it in the source given below.

The TEEB office is hosted by the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP).

Statement 2 and 3: Lifted nearly verbatim from the source below.

The Initiative

28) With reference to ‘Red Sanders’, sometimes seen in the news, consider the following statements:

1. It is a tree species found in a part of South India.

2. It is one of the most important trees in the tropical rain forest areas of South India.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

(a) 1 only

(b) 2 only

(c) Both 1 and 2

(d) Neither 1 nor 2

Solution: A

Justification: Statement 1: Red Sanders (a tree) has a highly restrictive distribution in the South Eastern portion of Indian peninsula (Eastern Ghats of South India) to which it is endemic. So, clearly 1 is correct.

Statement 2: It occurs in the forest formation which is classified as “Southern Tropical Dry Deciduous Forests”. So, clearly 2 is wrong.

It is generally found at altitudes of 150 – 900 m. It grows on dry, hilly, often rocky ground, and occasionally found on precipitous hill sides also. It prefers lateritic and gravelly soil and cannot tolerate water logging.

http://www.moef.nic.in/downloads/public-information/Chap-8-new.pdf

http://www.thehindu.com/news/national/andhra-pradesh/international-red-sanders-smuggler-nabbed/article8813238.ece

29. Which of the following statements is/are correct?

Proper design and effective implementation of UN-REDD+ Programme can significantly contribute to

1. protection of biodiversity

2. resilience of forest ecosystems

3. poverty reduction

Select the correct answer using the code given below.

(a) 1 and 2 only

(b) 3 only

(c) 2 and 3 only

(d) 1, 2 and 3

Solution: D

Justification: Statement 3 was debatable, but we are posting verbatim from the source below,

“The UN-REDD Programme has identified the following three topics for supporting national REDD+ governance structures, with an overarching principle of stakeholder participation

Country-led multi-stakeholder governance assessments that contribute to the development and implementation of national REDD+ strategies (for tackling forest degradation and biodiversity loss) and nationally owned monitoring frameworks

Social standards, including poverty and gender

Land and/or carbon tenure and the role of REDD+ within national land use strategies

http://www.unep.org/forests/Portals/142/docs/UN-REDD%20Programme%20Strategy.pdf

30. What is ‘Greenhouse Gas Protocol’?

(a) It is an international accounting tool for government and business leaders to understand, quantify and manage greenhouse gas emissions

(b) It is an initiative of the United Nations to offer financial incentives to developing countries to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and to adopt eco-friendly technologies

(c) It is an inter-governmental agreement ratified by all the member countries of the United Nations to reduce greenhouse gas emissions to specified levels by the year 2022

(d) It is one of the multilateral REDD+ initiatives hosted by the World Bank

Solution: A

Justification: The Greenhouse Gas Protocol (GHG Protocol) is the most widely used international accounting tool for government and business leaders to understand, quantify, and manage greenhouse gas emissions.

It is a decade-long partnership between the World Resources Institute (WRI) and the World Business Council for Sustainable Development (WBCSD).

It is working with businesses, governments, and environmental groups around the world to build a new generation of credible and effective programs for tackling climate change.

http://www.ghgprotocol.org/about-ghgp

31) With reference to ‘Financial Stability and Development Council’, consider the following statements :

1. It is an organ of NITI Aayog.

2. It is headed by the Union Finance Minister.

3. It monitors macro-prudential supervision of the economy.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

(a) 1 and 2 only

(b) 3 only

(c) 2 and 3 only

(d) 1, 2 and 3

Solution: C

Justification: Statement 1: With a view to strengthening and institutionalizing the mechanism for maintaining financial stability, enhancing inter-regulatory coordination and promoting financial sector development, the Financial Stability and Development Council (FSDC) was set up by the Government as the apex level forum in December 2010 (much before NITI AAyog was even setup). So, 1 is incorrect.

Statement 2: The Chairman of the Council is the Finance Minister and its members include the heads of financial sector Regulators (RBI, SEBI, PFRDA, IRDA & FMC) Finance Secretary and/or Secretary, Department of Economic Affairs, Secretary, Department of Financial Services, and Chief Economic Adviser. So, 2 is correct.

Statement 3: Without prejudice to the autonomy of regulators, the Council monitors macro prudential supervision of the economy, including functioning of large financial conglomerates, and addresses inter-regulatory coordination and financial sector development issues. So, 3 is correct.

It also focuses on financial literacy and financial inclusion.

http://finmin.nic.in/fsdc/StrucFSDC.pdf

32) With reference to ‘Agenda 21’, sometimes seen in the news, consider the following statements :

1. It is a global action plan for sustainable development

2. It originated in the World Summit on Sustainable Development held in Johannesburg in 2002.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

(a) 1 only

(b) 2 only

(c) Both 1 and 2

(d) Neither 1 nor 2

Solution: A

Justification: Agenda 21 is a non-binding, voluntarily implemented action plan of the United Nations with regard to sustainable development.

It is a product of the Earth Summit (UN Conference on Environment and Development) held in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, in 1992.

https://sustainabledevelopment.un.org/outcomedocuments/agenda21

33. Satya Shodhak Samaj organized

(a) a movement for upliftment of tribals in Bihar

(b) a temple-entry movement in Gujarat

(c) an anti-caste movement in Maharashtra

(d) a peasant movement in Punjab

Solution: C

Justification: Clear answer. You can read more about the movement here

http://shodhganga.inflibnet.ac.in/bitstream/10603/20396/11/11_chapter%205.pdf

34. Which of the following statements is/are correct?

Viruses can infect

1. bacteria

2. fungi

3. plants

Select the correct answer using the code given below.

(a) 1 and 2 only

(b) 3 only

(c) 1 and 3 only

(d) 1, 2 and 3

Solution: D

Justification: Viruses are known to infect almost any kind of host that has living cells. Animals, plants, fungi, and bacteria are all subject to viral infection.

A bacteriophage is a virus that infects and replicates within a bacterium. Mycoviruses are viruses that infect fungi. A host of other Viruses affect plants.

http://www.peteducation.com/article.cfm?c=16+2160&aid=2956

35. The term ‘Base Erosion and Profit Shifting’ is sometimes seen in the news in the context of

(a) mining operation by multinational companies in resource-rich but backward areas

(b) curbing of the tax evasion by multinational companies

(c) exploitation of genetic resources of a country by multinational companies

(d) lack of consideration of environmental costs in the planning and implementation of developmental projects

Solution: B

Justification: Base erosion and profit shifting (BEPS) refers to tax avoidance strategies that exploit gaps and mismatches in tax rules to artificially shift profits to low or no-tax locations.

Under the inclusive framework, over 100 countries and jurisdictions are collaborating to implement the BEPS measures and tackle BEPS.

Double-tax avoidance treaties and tax-information exchange between member nations are used to curb this practice.

http://www.oecd.org/tax/beps/

36. Recently, India’s first ‘National Investment and Manufacturing Zone’ was proposed to be set up in

(a) Andhra Pradesh

(b) Gujarat

(c) Maharashtra

(d) Uttar Pradesh

Solution: A

Justification: http://articles.economictimes.indiatimes.com/2015-09-21/news/66760948_1_andhra-pradesh-nimz-manufacturing-zone

37) What is/are the purpose/purposes of `District Mineral Foundations’ in India?

1. Promoting mineral exploration activities in mineral-rich districts

2. Protecting the interests of the persons affected by mining operations

3. Authorizing State Governments to issue licences for mineral exploration

Select the correct answer using the code given below.

(a) 1 and 2 only

(b) 2 only

(c) 1 and 3 only

(d) 1, 2 and 3

Solution: B

Justification: District Mineral Foundation (DMF) is a trust set up as a non-profit body, in those districts affected by the mining works, to work for the interest and benefit of persons and areas affected by mining related operations. It is funded through the contributions from miners.

So, all other statements apart from 2 are wrong.

Setting up of District Mineral Foundations (DMFs) in all districts in the country affected by mining related operations was mandated through the Mines and Minerals (Development & Regulation) Amendment Act, (MMDRA) 2015.

Its manner of operation comes under the jurisdiction of the relevant State Government.

http://www.arthapedia.in/index.php?title=District_Mineral_Foundation_(DMF)

38. `SWAYAM’, an initiative of the Government of India, aims at

(a) promoting the Self Help Groups in rural areas

(b) providing financial and technical assistance to young start-up entrepreneurs

(c) promoting the education and health of adolescent girls

(d) providing affordable and quality education to the citizens for free

Solution: D

Justification: SWAYAM is an Information Technology platform which will host Massive Open Online Courses (MOOCs) and provide high quality education on various subjects from school level–class 9-12 to Under Graduate and Post Graduate students– covering all disciplines.

Through this scheme the Ministry has proposed to provide high quality e-content to all colleges and universities free of cost.

http://economictimes.indiatimes.com/industry/services/education/pm-narendra-modi-to-launch-swayam-massive-open-online-courses-platform-on-aug-15/articleshow/53029959.cms

39. The Montague-Chelmsford Proposals were related to

(a) social reforms

(b) educational reforms

(c) reforms in police administration

(d) constitutional reforms

Solution: D

Justification: They introduced by the British Government in India to introduce self-governing institutions gradually to India.

They formed the basis of the Government of India Act 1919.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Montagu%E2%80%93Chelmsford_Reforms

40) What is/are common to the two historical places known as Ajanta and Mahabalipuram?

1. Both were built in the same period.

2. Both belong to the same religious denomination.

3. Both have rock-cut monuments.

Select the correct answer using the code given below.

(a) 1 and 2 only

(b) 3 only

(c) 1 and 3 only

(d) None of the statements given above is correct

Solution: B

Justification: Statement 1: As per ASI Website, “While there is some evidence of architectural activity going back to the period of Mahendravarman-I (AD 600-30), the father of Mamalla, most of the monuments are attributed to the period of Narasimhavarman-I Mamalla (AD 630-68) – the Pallava ruler.

On the other hand Ajanta caves were excavated in different periods (circa. 2nd century B.C. to 6th century A.D.) according to the necessity. So, clearly 1 is wrong.

Statement 2: Mahabalipuram contains rock-cut rathas, sculptured scenes on open rocks like Arjuna’s penance, the caves of Govardhanadhari and Mahishasuramardini, the Jala-Sayana Perumal temple (the sleeping Mahavishnu or Chakrin at the rear part of the Shore temple complex). So, it is more linked to the Vaishnavites.

On the other hand, Ajanta is linked more to the Buddhist religious denomination.

Statement 2 is also wrong.

Statement 3: Both have rock-cut monuments, because cave cut Chaityas, Viharas and Stupas can be clearly seen at Ajanta. Also, the mural paintings that are made at Ajanta involve some rock-cutting as per ASI.

Mahabalipuram is famous for rock monuments as described above.

Only 3 is correct.

http://asi.nic.in/asi_monu_whs_mahabalipuram.asp

http://asi.nic.in/asi_monu_whs_ajanta.asp

41) With reference to ‘Bitcoins’, sometimes seen in the news, which of the following statements is/are correct?

1. Bitcoins are tracked by the Central Banks of the countries.

2. Anyone with a Bitcoin address can send and receive Bitcoins from anyone else with a Bitcoin address.

3. Online payments can be sent without either side knowing the identity of the other.

Select the correct answer using the code given below.

(a) 1 and 2 only

(b) 2 and 3 only

(c) 3 only

(d) 1, 2 and 3

Solution: B

Justification: Bitcoins can be sent directly to anyone, anywhere in the world. The only requirement is that you should have a Bitcoin address of the recipient. The process doesn’t require you to reveal your identity. So, 2 and 3 are correct.

The system is peer-to-peer and transactions take place between users directly, without an intermediary. So, it is not tracked by the Central bank or any intermediary. 1 is incorrect.

https://bitcoin.org/en/how-it-works

42) Consider the following statements :

1. New Development Bank has been set up by APEC.

2. The headquarters of New Development Bank is in Shanghai.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

(a) 1 only

(b) 2 only

(c) Both 1 and 2

(d) Neither 1 nor 2

Solution: B

Justification: It was created by BRICS in 2014 and headquartered in Shanghai, China.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/New_Development_Bank

43. ‘Gadgil Committee Report’ and ‘Kasturirangan Committee Report’, sometimes seen in the news, are related to

(a) constitutional reforms

(b) Ganga Action Plan

(c) linking of rivers

(d) protection of Western Ghats

Solution: D

Justification: Clear-cut answer.

http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/home/environment/developmental-issues/Gadgil-committee-recommendations-on-Western-Ghats-ideal-practical-Experts/articleshow/41136674.cms

http://www.business-standard.com/article/economy-policy/kasturirangan-report-to-be-basis-for-eco-sensitive-areas-in-western-ghats-114082701235_1.html

44) Consider the following :

1. Calcutta Unitarian Committee

2. Tabernacle of New Dispensation

3. Indian Reform Association

Keshab Chandra Sen is associated with the establishment of which of the above?

(a) 1 and 3 only

(b) 2 and 3 only

(c) 3 only

(d) 1, 2 and 3

Solution: B

Justification: Calcutta Unitarian Committee was established in 1823 by Rammohun Roy, Dwarkanath Tagore, and William Adam. So, 1 is wrong.

In 1868, Keshub laid the foundation stone of his new church, the Tabernacle of New Dispensation. So, 2 is correct.

Indian reform association was founded in 1870 with Keshub Chunder Sen as president. It represented the secular side of the Brahmo Samaj and included many who did not belong to the Brahmo Samaj. So, 3 is correct.

http://www.thebrahmosamaj.net/founders/keshub.html

http://www.thebrahmosamaj.net/history/chronology.html

45. Which of the following is not a member of `Gulf Cooperation Council’?

(a) Iran

(b) Saudi Arabia

(c) Oman

(d) Kuwait

Solution: A

Justification: It is a political and economic alliance of six Middle Eastern countries—Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, the United Arab Emirates, Qatar, Bahrain, and Oman.

https://www.mea.gov.in/Portal/ForeignRelation/Gulf_Cooperation_Council_MEA_Website.pdf

46) What is/are the purpose/purposes of Government’s ‘Sovereign Gold Bond Scheme’ and ‘Gold Monetization Scheme’?

1. To bring the idle gold lying with Indian households into the economy

2. To promote FDI in the gold and jewellery sector

3. To reduce India’s dependence on gold imports

Select the correct answer using the code given below.

(a) 1 only

(b) 2 and 3 only

(c) 1 and 3 only

(d) 1, 2 and 3

Solution: C

Justification: The scheme doesn’t intend to bring FDI in gold and jewellery sector, and by eliminating this only possible answers you have are either A or C.

Both schemes aim at reducing physical demand of gold and thus bring down gold imports which clearly tell us that the answer must be C.

Gold Monetisation Scheme, Sovereign Gold Bonds Scheme, Indian gold coin launched

47. ‘Belt and Road Initiative’ is sometimes mentioned in the news in the context of the affairs of

(a) African Union

(b) Brazil

(c) European Union

(d) China

Solution: D

Justification: http://thediplomat.com/tag/one-belt-one-road/

48. Pradhan Mantri MUDRA Yojana is aimed at

(a) bringing the small entrepreneurs into formal financial system

(b) providing loans to poor farmers for cultivating particular crops

(c) providing pensions to old and destitute persons

(d) funding the voluntary organizations involved in the promotion of skill development and employment generation

Solution: A

Justification: http://www.icicibank.com/Personal-Banking/loans/pradhan-mantri-mudra-yojana.page

49. In which of the following regions of India are shale gas resources found?

1. Cambay Basin

2. Cauvery Basin

3. Krishna-Godavari Basin

Select the correct answer using the code given below.

(a) 1 and 2 only

(b) 3 only

(c) 2 and 3 only

(d) 1, 2 and 3

Solution: D

Justification: The Ministry of Petroleum and Natural Gas (MoPNG) has identified six basins as potentially shale gas bearing. These are Cambay, Assam-Arakan, Gondwana, Krishna-Godavari, Kaveri, and the Indo-Gangetic plain.

http://www.teriin.org/policybrief/docs/Shale_gas.pdf

50. ‘Global Financial Stability Report’ is prepared by the

(a) European Central Bank

(b) International Monetary Fund

(c) International Bank for Reconstruction and Development

(d) Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development

Solution: B

Justification: https://www.imf.org/external/pubs/ft/gfsr/

51) Regarding ‘Atal Pension Yojana’, which of the following statements is/are correct?

1. It is a minimum guaranteed pension scheme mainly targeted at unorganized sector workers.

2. Only one member of a family can join the scheme.

3. Same amount of pension is guaranteed for the spouse for life after subscriber’s death.

Select the correct answer using the code given below.

(a) 1 only

(b) 2 and 3 only

(c) 1 and 3 only

(d) 1, 2 and 3

Solution: C

Justification: Statement 1: The Yojana mainly addresses the longevity risks among the workers in unorganised sector and encourages them to voluntarily save for their retirement. So, 1 is correct.

Statement 2: Atal Pension Yojana (APY) is open to all bank account holders who are not members of any statutory social security scheme. So, 2 is wrong.

Statement 3: As per the Ministry of Finance, “The spouse of the subscriber shall be entitled to receive the same pension amount as that of the subscriber until the death of the spouse. After the death of both the subscriber and the spouse, the nominee of the subscriber shall be entitled to receive the pension wealth, as accumulated till age of 60 years of the subscribe”. So, clearly 3 is correct.

http://pib.nic.in/newsite/PrintRelease.aspx?relid=116208

Some recent changes (on which statement 3 is based):

http://economictimes.indiatimes.com/wealth/plan/government-amends-atal-pension-yojana/articleshow/51511223.cms

52. The term ‘Regional Comprehensive Economic Partnership’ often appears in the news in the context of the affairs of a group of countries known as

(a) G20

(b) ASEAN

(c) SCO

(d) SAARC

Solution: B

Justification:

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Regional_Comprehensive_Economic_Partnership

53) On which of the following can you find the Bureau of Energy Efficiency Star Label?

1. Ceiling fans

2. Electric geysers

3. Tubular fluorescent lamps

Select the correct answer using the code given below.

(a) 1 and 2 only

(b) 3 only

(c) 2 and 3 only

(d) 1, 2 and 3

Solution: D

Justification: http://www.beepindia.org/sites/default/files/Chapter%206%20-%20Appliances.pdf

54. India is an important member of the ‘International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor’. If this experiment succeeds, what is the immediate advantage for India?

(a) It can use thorium in place of uranium for power generation

(b) It can attain a global role in satellite navigation

(c) It can drastically improve the efficiency of its fission reactors in power generation

(d) It can build fusion reactors for power generation

Solution: D

Justification: 35 nations are collaborating to build the world’s largest tokamak, a magnetic fusion device that has been designed to prove the feasibility of fusion as a large-scale and carbon-free source of energy based on the same principle that powers our Sun and stars.

The ITER Members—China, the European Union, India, Japan, Korea, Russia and the United States—are now engaged in a 35-year collaboration to build and operate the ITER experimental device, and together bring fusion to the point where a demonstration fusion reactor can be designed.

https://www.iter.org/proj/inafewlines

55. In the context of the history of India, consider the following pairs:

Term Description

(1) Eripatti : Land, revenue from which was set apart for the maintenance of the village tank

(2) Taniyurs : Villages donated to a single Brahmin or a group of Brahmins

(3) Ghatikas : Colleges generally attached to the temples

Which of the pairs given above is/are correctly matched?

(a) 1 and 2

(b) 3 only

(c) 2 and 3

(d) 1 and 3

Solution: D

Justification: Statement 1: A special category of land Eripatti or tank land, was known only in south India, This was land donated by individuals, the revenue from which was set apart for the maintenance of’ the village tank, which indicates the dependence of the village on the tank for irrigation. You can see here http://tinyurl.com/hprtzyu

Statement 2: Taniyurs were distinct revenue units under Cholas. You can see here http://tinyurl.com/zchz6ue

Statement 3: In South India centres of higher learning were known as Ghatikas. There was a famous Ghatika at Kanchi, drawing students from far and near. These Ghatikas were run in temples.

http://tinyurl.com/h5acpfv

56) Consider the following statements:

1. The International Solar Alliance was launched at the United Nations Climate Change Conference in 2015.

2. The Alliance includes all the member countries of the United Nations.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

(a) 1 only

(b) 2 only

(c) Both 1 and 2

(d) Neither 1 nor 2

Solution: A

Justification: India and France have launched an International Solar Alliance at the UN Climate Change Conference in Paris to boost solar energy in developing countries. So, 1 is correct.

The alliance includes around 120 countries (not all UN members) that support the “Declaration on the occasion to launch the international solar alliance of countries dedicated to the promotion of solar energy”. So, 2 is wrong.

http://newsroom.unfccc.int/clean-energy/international-solar-energy-alliance-launched-at-cop21/

57. ‘European Stability Mechanism’, sometimes seen in the news, is an

(a) agency created by EU to deal with the impact of millions of refugees arriving from Middle East

(b) agency of EU that provides financial assistance to eurozone countries

(c) agency of EU to deal with all the bilateral and multilateral agreements on trade

(d) agency of EU to deal with the conflicts arising among the member countries

Solution: B

Justification: The European Stability Mechanism is a European Union agency that provides financial assistance, in the form of loans, to eurozone countries or as new capital to banks in difficulty.

http://www.esm.europa.eu/

58) Which of the following is/are the advantage /advantages of practising drip irrigation?

1. Reduction in weed

2. Reduction in soil salinity

3. Reduction in soil erosion

Select the correct answer using the code given below.

(a) 1 and 2 only

(b) 3 only

(c) 1 and 3 only

(d) None of the above is an advantage of practising drip irrigation

Solution: C

Justification: Statement 1: Weeds usually grow in between the plant rows due to availability of moisture on that strip of land. In drip irrigation, water is applied directly to the roots, and not the entire field (thus excluding the land space between plants where weeds usually grow). So, weed growth is inhibited.

Statement 2: There may be some confusion in this statement. Generally excessive logging and flooded fields suffer from higher salinity. So, replacing conventional irrigation may help in curbing water-logged soil salinity.

But, generally speaking, as a rule, we cannot claim that if drip irrigation system is installed on a farm land, it would always reduce soil salinity. Seen in isolation from instances of water logging (or other such cases), drip irrigation and soil salinity do not have much co-relation. The system simply delivers water to the roots of the plant.

Also, if we use elimination, as 1 and 3 must be correct, there is no option “1, 2 and 3” which automatically tells us that statement 2 is wrong.

Statement 3: Surface irrigation is a significant contributor to top soil erosion. Drip irrigation reduces soil erosion as water is delivered directly to plant roots at a very slow rate (unlike surface irrigation where water velocity can be fast).

https://www.irrigationdirect.com/articles/drip-irrigation-history-benefits

http://www.agriinfo.in/default.aspx?page=topic&superid=8&topicid=2243

59) Regarding DigiLocker’, sometimes seen in the news, which of the following statements is/are correct?

1. It is a digital locker system offered by the Government under Digital India Programme.

2. It allows you to access your e-documents irrespective of your physical location.

Select the correct answer using the code given below.

(a) 1 only

(b) 2 only

(c) Both 1 and 2

(d) Neither 1 nor 2

Solution: C

Justification: DigiLocker is one of the key initiatives under the Digital India Programme. This was released by the Department of Electronics and Information Technology (DeitY), Government of India.

The space can be utilized for storing personal documents like University certificates, Permanent account number (PAN) cards, voter id cards, etc., and the URIs of the e-documents issued by various issuer departments.

https://india.gov.in/spotlight/digilocker-online-document-storage-facility

60. Recently, linking of which of the following rivers was undertaken?

(a) Cauvery and Tungabhadra

(b) Godavari and Krishna

(c) Mahanadi and Sone

(d) Narmada and Tapti

Solution: B

Justification: http://indianexpress.com/article/explained/godavari-and-krishna-rivers-interlink-when-two-rivers-meet/

61) In the cities of our country, which among the following atmospheric gases are normally considered in calculating the value of Air Quality Index?

1. Carbon dioxide

2. Carbon monoxide

3. Nitrogen dioxide

4. Sulfur dioxide

5. Methane

Select the correct answer using the code given below.

(a) 1, 2 and 3 only

(b) 2, 3 and 4 only

(c) 1, 4 and 5 only

(d) 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5

Solution: B

Justification: Air Quality Index doesn’t include carbon dioxide and methane.

http://www.hindustantimes.com/india/modi-launches-air-quality-index-wants-change-in-lifestyle-to-save-environment/story-C8VHWyZWYe36La6PQ7v2eO.html

62) With reference to `Astrosat’, the astronomical observatory launched by India, which of the following statements is/are correct?

1. Other than USA and Russia, India is the only country to have launched a similar observatory into space.

2. Astrosat is a 2000 kg satellite placed in an orbit at 1650 km above the surface of the Earth.

Select the correct answer using the code given below.

(a) 1 only

(b) 2 only

(c) Both 1 and 2

(d) Neither 1 nor 2

Solution: D

Justification: ASTROSAT is India’s first dedicated multi wavelength space observatory.

Statement 1: This is the first time ISRO is launching a space observatory into space. Before India, NASA, space agencies of the European Union, Japan and Russia have launched similar facilities into the space. So, 1 is wrong.

Statement 2: ASTROSAT with a lift-off mass of about 1513 kg was launched into a 650 km orbit (polar). So, 2 is wrong.

http://www.isro.gov.in/Spacecraft/astrosat

http://www.thehindu.com/sci-tech/science/isro-launches-astrosat-first-space-observatory/article7697707.ece

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_space_telescopes

63. With reference to the economic history of medieval India, the term Araghatta’ refers to

(a) bonded labour

(b) land grants made to military officers

(c) waterwheel used in the irrigation of land

(d) wasteland and converted to cultivated land

Solution: C

Justification: http://base.d-p-h.info/en/fiches/dph/fiche-dph-7866.html

http://tinyurl.com/zktanrk

64. With reference to the cultural history of India, the memorizing of chronicles, dynastic histories and Epictales was the profession of who of the following?

(a) Shramana

(b) Parivraajaka

(c) Agrahaarika

(d) Maagadha

Solution: D

Justification: Excerpts from Romila Thapar, Ancient India, “The memorizing of chronicles, dynastic histories, or epic tales was the work of a group of people, the sutas and magadhas.”

http://tinyurl.com/hb6mepk

65. Recently, for the first time in our country, which of the following States has declared a particular butterfly as ‘State Butterfly’?

(a) Arunachal Pradesh

(b) Himachal Pradesh

(c) Karnataka

(d) Maharashtra

Solution: D

Justification: http://www.thehindu.com/news/national/other-states/maharashtra-gets-state-butterfly/article7342955.ece

66. Consider the following statements:

The Mangalyaan launched by ISRO

1. is also called the Mars Orbiter Mission

2. made India the second country to have a spacecraft orbit the Mars after USA

3. made India the only country to be successful in making its spacecraft orbit the Mars in its very first attempt

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

(a) 1 only

(b) 2 and 3 only

(c) 1 and 3 only

(d) 1, 2 and 3

Solution: C

Justification: India is the only country to be successful in making its spacecraft orbit Mars in its very first attempt.

India is the first Asian country and ISRO is the fourth space agency to send a satellite to Mars.

http://www.isro.gov.in/Spacecraft/mars-orbiter-mission-spacecraft

http://www.thehindu.com/opinion/op-ed/a-faster-cheaper-mars-orbiter/article6442854.ece

67. What was the main reason for the split in the Indian National Congress at Surat in 1907?

(a) Introduction of communalism into Indian politics by Lord Minto

(b) Extremists’ lack of faith in the capacity of the moderates to negotiate with the British Government

(c) Foundation of Muslim League

(d) Aurobindo Ghosh’s inability to be elected as the President of the Indian National Congress

Solution: B

Justification: Standard question on Surat Split.

12 th TamiNadu History Textbook

68. The plan of Sir Stafford Cripps envisaged that after the Second World War

(a) India should be granted complete independence

(b) India should be partitioned into two before granting independence

(c) India should be made a republic with the condition that she will join the Commonwealth

(d) India should be given Dominion status

Solution: D

Justification: Standard question on Cripps Mission.

NCERT – 12 th – Themes in Indian History – III

69. Consider the following pairs:

Famous place Region

1. Bodhgaya Baghelkhand

2. Khajuraho Bundelkhand

3. Shirdi Vidarbha

4. Nasik (Nashik) Malwa

5. Tirupati Rayalaseema

Which of the pairs given above are correctly matched?

(a) 1, 2 and 4

(b) 2, 3, 4 and 5

(c) 2 and 5 only

(d) 1, 3, 4 and 5

Solution: C

Justification: Baghelkhand is in Central India, whereas Bodhgaya is in Bihar. So, if 1 is wrong, we have options (b) and (c) remaining.

Malwa doesn’t extend to Nasik and Shirdi is in Ahmadnagar (far from Vidarbha). So, 3 and 4 are wrong.

The only answer can be C.

Source: Map-based questions on important regions

70. The Parliament of India acquires the power to legislate on any item in the State List in the national interest if a resolution to that effect is passed by the

(a) Lok Sabha by a simple majority of its total membership

(b) Lok Sabha by a majority of not less than two-thirds of its total membership

(c) Rajya Sabha by a simple majority of its total membership

(d) Rajya Sabha by a majority of not less than two-thirds of its members present and voting

Solution: D

Justification: If Rajya Sabha approves a resolution with special majority and declares that a subject is of national interest, the Parliament can make a law on the particular subject in the state list (7 th Schedule).

Source: Indian Polity: M Laxmikanth

71. Recently, which of the following States has explored the possibility of constructing an artificial inland port to be connected to sea by a long navigational channel?

(a) Andhra Pradesh

(b) Chhattisgarh

(c) Karnataka

(d) Rajasthan

Solution: D

Justification: A proposal received from Government of Rajasthan to develop Inland Shipping Port at Jalore which would be connected to the Arabian Sea by developing a channel along the Kutch Creek, was discussed by the officers of the Rajasthan Government with the officials of Inland Waterways Authority of India (IWAI).

It was decided that a pre-feasibility study be undertaken by Government of Rajasthan containing all the technical parameters required to assess the possibility of developing the port at Jalore.

IWAI has finalized the Terms of Reference for the study, which has been forwarded to Government of Rajasthan for necessary action.

http://pib.nic.in/newsite/PrintRelease.aspx?relid=130196

72) With reference to the Agreement at the UNFCCC Meeting in Paris in 2015, which of the following statements is/are correct?

1. The Agreement was signed by all the member countries of the UN and it will go into effect in 2017.

2. The Agreement aims to limit the greenhouse gas emissions so that the rise in average global temperature by the end of this century does not exceed 2 °C or even 1.5 °C above pre-industrial levels.

3. Developed countries acknowledged their historical responsibility in global warming and committed to donate $ 1000 billion a year from 2020 to help developing countries to cope with climate change.

Select the correct answer using the code given below.

(a) 1 and 3 only

(b) 2 only

(c) 2 and 3 only

(d) 1, 2 and 3

Solution: B

Justification: Statement 1: It was only “agreed” by 195 nations in Paris at the conference. The agreement will enter into force only after 55 countries that account for at least 55% of global emissions have deposited their instruments of ratification. So, 1 is wrong.

Statement 3: Developed countries will work to define a clear roadmap on ratcheting up climate finance to USD 100 billion (not USD 1000 billion) by 2020. So, 3 is wrong.

The only answer can be option B.

http://newsroom.unfccc.int/unfccc-newsroom/finale-cop21/

73) Consider the following statements:

1. The Sustainable Development Goals were first proposed in 1972 by a global think tank called the ‘Club of Rome’.

2. The Sustainable Development Goals have to be achieved by 2030.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

(a) 1 only

(b) 2 only

(c) Both 1 and 2

(d) Neither 1 nor 2

Solution: B

Justification: Statement 1: The first report of the Club of Rome was the famous “The limits to growth” thesis brought out in 1972.

While the report did talk about the need of reducing our consumption habits and sustainable development, it is hard to conclude that the SDGs were first proposed by them.

This is because SDGs are a comprehensive set of goals that include not only environmental conservation, but also reducing poverty, ensuring education, curbing malnutrition and hunger etc. So, we believe 1 should be wrong.

Statement 2: It is officially known as “Transforming our world: the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development”

The Club of Rome and sustainable development

74. A recent movie titled The Man Who Knew Infinity is based on the biography of

(a) S. Ramanujan

(b) S. Chandrasekhar

(c) S. N. Bose

(d) C. V. Raman

Solution: A

Justification: It is a 2015 British biographical drama film based on the 1991 book of the same name by Robert Kanigel.

The film stars Dev Patel as the real-life Srinivasa Ramanujan, a mathematician who after growing up poor in Madras, India, earns admittance to Cambridge University during World War I, where he becomes a pioneer in mathematical theories.

Distinguished mathematicians Manjul Bhargava and Ken Ono are Associate Producers of the film.

You can read the movie review here http://www.thehindu.com/features/cinema/cinema-reviews/the-man-who-knew-infinity-review-a-misunderstood-mind/article8534574.ece

75) Consider the following statements:

1. The minimum age prescribed for any person to be a member of Panchayat is 25 years.

2. A Panchayat reconstituted after premature dissolution continues only for the remainder period.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

(a) 1 only

(b) 2 only

(c) Both 1 and 2

(d) Neither 1 nor 2

Solution: B

Justification: Statement 1: It is 21 years, so 1 is wrong.

Statement 2: A Panchayat reconstituted after premature dissolution (i.e., before the expiry of the full period of five years) shall continue only for the remainder of the period. But if the remainder of the period is less than six months it shall not be necessary to hold elections.

http://www.tn.gov.in/fsfc/Const%20Amend%2073.htm

76) Which of the following statements is/are correct?

1. A Bill pending in the Lok Sabha lapses on its prorogation.

2. A Bill pending in the Rajya Sabha, which has not been passed by the Lok Sabha, shall not lapse on dissolution of the Lok Sabha.

Select the correct answer using the code given below.

(a) 1 only

(b) 2 only

(c) Both 1 and 2

(d) Neither 1 nor 2

Solution: B

Justification: Prorogation does not affect the bills or any other business pending before the House.

It is the pending notices (other than those for introducing bills) lapse on prorogation and fresh notices have to be given for the next session. So, 1 is incorrect.

Statement 2: A bill pending in the Lok Sabha lapses (whether originating in the Lok Sabha or transmitted to it by the Rajya Sabha).

A bill passed by the Lok Sabha but pending in the Rajya Sabha lapses.

A bill pending in the Rajya Sabha but not passed by the Lok Sabha does not lapse.

A bill passed by both Houses but pending assent of the president does not lapse

So, 2 is correct.

Source: Indian Polity: M Laxmikanth

77) Which of the following is/are the indicator/indicators used by IFPRI to compute the Global Hunger Index Report?

1. Undernourishment

2. Child stunting

3. Child mortality

Select the correct answer using the code given below.

(a) 1 only

(b) 2 and 3 only

(c) 1, 2 and 3

(d) 1 and 3 only

Solution: C

Justification: To reflect the multidimensional nature of hunger, the GHI combines the following four component indicators into one index:

Undernourishment: the proportion of undernourished people as a percentage of the population (reflecting the share of the population whose caloric intake is insufficient;

Child wasting: the proportion of children under the age of five who suffer from wasting (that is, low weight for their height, reflecting acute undernutrition);

Child stunting: the proportion of children under the age of five who suffer from stunting (that is, low height for their age, reflecting chronic undernutrition); and

Child mortality: the mortality rate of children under the age of five (partially reflecting the fatal synergy of inadequate nutrition and unhealthy environments).

http://www.ifpri.org/topic/global-hunger-index

78) There has been a persistent deficit budget year after year. Which action/actions of the following can be taken by the Government to reduce the deficit?

1. Reducing revenue expenditure

2. Introducing new welfare schemes

3. Rationalizing subsidies

4. Reducing import duty

Select the correct answer using the code given below.

(a) 1 only

(b) 2 and 3 only

(c) 1 and 3 only

(d) 1, 2, 3 and 4

Solution: C

Justification: Statement 1: Unnecessary revenue expenditure bloats the fiscal deficit, and since it forms the majority of government spending, its reduction has a very large effect on the fiscal deficit.

Statement 2: It will further increase the fiscal deficit.

Statement 3: Subsidies are a major component of government spending, and its reduction will cut down fiscal deficit.

Statement 4: It reduces tax revenue and thus increases fiscal deficit.

Source: NCERT 12 th Macroeconomics

79) The establishment of ‘Payment Banks’ is being allowed in India to promote financial inclusion. Which of the following statements is/are correct in this context?

1. Mobile telephone companies and supermarket chains that are owned and controlled by residents are eligible to be promoters of Payment Banks.

2. Payment Banks can issue both credit cards and debit cards.

3. Payment Banks cannot undertake lending activities.

Select the correct answer using the code given below.

(a) 1 and 2 only

(b) 1 and 3 only

(c) 2 only

(d) 1, 2 and 3

Solution: B

Justification: Statement 1: Eligible promoters (mentioning only some of them):

Existing non-bank Pre-paid Payment Instrument (PPI) issuers; and other entities such as individuals / professionals; Non-Banking Finance Companies (NBFCs), corporate Business Correspondents(BCs), mobile telephone companies, super-market chains, companies, real sector cooperatives; that are owned and controlled by residents; and public sector entities may apply to set up payments banks.

So, 1 is correct.

Statement 2: Scope of activities of Payment Banks as per RBI guidelines (we are mentioning only few of them):

They can accept demand deposits.

They can issue ATM/debit cards. Payments banks, however, cannot issue credit cards (as they can’t lend money). So, 2 is wrong, which makes option B the only answer.

Statement 3: As per RBI guidelines, they cannot undertake lending activities.

https://rbi.org.in/scripts/BS_PressReleaseDisplay.aspx?prid=32615

80) With reference to ‘Li-Fi’, recently in the news, which of the following statements is/are correct?

1. It uses light as the medium for high-speed data transmission.

2. It is a wireless technology and is several times faster than ‘WiFi’.

Select the correct answer using the code given below.

(a) 1 only

(b) 2 only

(c) Both 1 and 2

(d) Neither 1 nor 2

Solution: C

Justification: Statement 1: Li-fi is loosely expanded to Light-Fidelity. Using precisely controlled light modulation, data can be transmitted using regular, visible light.

Statement 2: It will be 10-100 times faster than current-generation WiFi, and also very secure.

http://www.sciencealert.com/li-fi-tested-in-the-real-world-for-the-first-time-is-100-times-faster-than-wi-fi

81. The term ‘Intended Nationally Determined Contributions’ is sometimes seen in the news in the context of

(a) pledges made by the European countries to rehabilitate refugees from the war-affected Middle East

(b) plan of action outlined by the countries of the world to combat climate change

(c) capital contributed by the member countries in the establishment of Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank

(d) plan of action outlined by the countries of the world regarding Sustainable Development Goals

Solution: B

Justification: Straight-forward question.

http://unfccc.int/focus/indc_portal/items/8766.php

82. Which one of the following is a purpose of `UDAY’, a scheme of the Government?

(a) Providing technical and financial assistance to start-up entrepreneurs in the field of renewable sources of energy

(b) Providing electricity to every household in the country by 2018

(c) Replacing the coal-based power plants with natural gas, nuclear, solar, wind and tidal power plants over a period of time

(d) Providing for financial turnaround and revival of power distribution companies

Solution: D

Justification: It is the Ujwal DISCOM Assurance Yojana, where DISCOMs stand for distribution companies (electricity) that are state-owned and suffering huge financial losses due to poor infrastructure, AT&C losses, mis-governance, low tariff rates etc.

The scheme aims at their financial turnaround and revival.

Source: Ministry of Power Website

83) With reference to `IFC Masala Bonds’, sometimes seen in the news, which of the statements given below is/are correct?

1. The International Finance Corporation, which offers these bonds, is an arm of the World Bank.

2. They are the rupee-denominated bonds and are a source of debt financing for the public and private sector.

Select the correct answer using the code given below.

(a) 1 only

(b) 2 only

(c) Both 1 and 2

(d) Neither 1 nor 2

Solution: C

Justification:

Statement 1: The World Bank Group (WBG) consists of five organizations – IBRD, IDA, IFC, MIGA and ICSID.

IFC is a member of the World Bank Group (WBG) and at the same time it’s called as the World Bank’s private sector lending arm with a stated objective to ensure that any financing does not result in harm to communities and the environment. (Source: https://www.oxfam.org/en/pressroom/pressreleases/2013-02-08/world-banks-private-sector-financing-arm-doesnt-know)

Another source that mentions IFC as WB’s arm – https://www.icij.org/blog/2015/06/numbers-world-banks-lesser-known-arm-ifc (read first paragraph)

Another source: https://www.theguardian.com/global-development/2016/mar/30/world-bank-lending-arm-ifc-sees-off-lawsuit-by-indian-fishermen-power-plant

Statement 2: IFC has been issuing offshore rupee bonds known as ‘Masala Bonds’. They provide a new source of funding for Indian companies which benefit in the longer term from comparative pricing of bonds.

http://economictimes.indiatimes.com/markets/bonds/masala-bonds-can-be-new-funding-source-for-indian-cos-ifc/articleshow/51762984.cms

http://www.ifc.org/wps/wcm/connect/news_ext_content/ifc_external_corporate_site/news+and+events/news/ifc+issues+first+green+masala+bond+on+london+stock+exchange

84) Regarding the taxation system of Krishna Deva, the ruler of Vijayanagar, consider the following statements:

1. The tax rate on land was fixed depending on the quality of the land.

2. Private owners of workshops paid an industries tax.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

(a) 1 only

(b) 2 only

(c) Both 1 and 2

(d) Neither 1 nor 2

Solution: C

Justification: Statement 1: Land revenue was the chief source of income. Land was divided into four categories for purposes of assessment, wet land, dry land, orchards and woods. Usually the share was one sixth of the produce. Land revenue could be paid in cash or kind. The rates varied according to the type of the crops, soil, method of irrigation, etc. So, 1 is clearly correct.

Statement 2: Besides land tax, many professional taxes were also imposed. There were on shopkeepers, farm servants, workmen, posters, shoemakers, musicians etc. There was also a tax on property. Grazing and house taxes were also imposed. Commercial taxes consisted of levies, duties and customs on manufactured articles of trade were also levied. Private owners of workshops paid an industries tax, which means 2 is correct.

Source: UB Singh – Administrative System in India: Vedic Age to 1947 http://tinyurl.com/js458vk

85. Which one of the following books of ancient India has the love story of the son of the founder of Sunga dynasty?

(a) Swapnavasavadatta

(b) Malavikagnimitra

(c) Meghadoota

(d) Ratnavali

Solution: B

Justification: It is a Sanskrit play by Kalidasa. It is based on some events of the reign of Pushyamitra Shunga.

The play tells the story of the love of Agnimitra, the Shunga Emperor at Vidisha, for the beautiful hand-maiden of his chief queen.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/M%C4%81lavik%C4%81gnimitram

86. In the context of which of the following do you sometimes find the terms `amber box, blue box and green box’ in the news?

(a) WTO affairs

(b) SAARC affairs

(c) UNFCCC affairs

(d) India-EU negotiations on FTA

Solution: A

Justification: They relate to direct/indirect support given by states to their industries and agriculture, and regulate such supports as they have a bearing on international trade.

Source: WTO Website

87) Which of the following is/are included in the capital budget of the Government of India?

1. Expenditure on acquisition of assets like roads, buildings, machinery, etc.

2. Loans received from foreign governments

3. Loans and advances granted to the States and Union Territories

Select the correct answer using the code given below.

(a) 1 only

(b) 2 and 3 only

(c) 1 and 3 only

(d) 1, 2 and 3

Solution: D

Justification: The Capital Budget is an account of the assets as well as liabilities of the central government, which takes into consideration changes in capital – both capital expenditure and capital receipt.

The main items of capital receipts are loans raised by the government from the public which are called market borrowings, borrowing by the government from the Reserve Bank and commercial banks and other financial institutions through the sale of treasury bills, loans received from foreign governments and international organisations, and recoveries of loans granted by the central government. So, 2 is correct.

Capital Expenditure includes expenditure on the acquisition of land, building, machinery, equipment, investment in shares, and loans and advances by the central government to state and union territory governments, PSUs and other parties. So, 1 and 3 are correct.

Source: 12 th NCERT Macroeconomics

88) What is/are the importance/importances of the ‘United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification’?

1. It aims to promote effective action through innovative national programmes and supportive inter-national partnerships.

2. It has a special/particular focus on South Asia and North Africa regions, and its Secretariat facilitates the allocation of major portion of financial resources to these regions.

3. It is committed to bottom-up approach, encouraging the participation of local people in combating the desertification.

Select the correct answer using the code given below.

(a) 1 only

(b) 2 and 3 only

(c) 1 and 3 only

(d) 1, 2 and 3

Solution: C

Statement 1 and 2: Please see the Q Source.

Statement 2: Though desertification affects Africa the most, where two-thirds of the continent is desert or drylands, it is not a problem confined to drylands in Africa. United States, Latin America and the Caribbean have a high percentage of degraded lands.

The problem is starker in developing countries (majority of population in drylands is living in these countries). So, the UNCCD secretariat facilitates south-south cooperation is addressing desertification.

We could not find any such provision that the UNCCD secretariat allocates majority of resources to the South Asian and North African regions, even though it focuses on these regions.

http://www.unccd.int/en/about-the-convention/Pages/About-the-Convention.aspx

http://www.unesco.org/mab/doc/ekocd/chapter14.html

http://www.unccd.int/en/resources/Library/Pages/FAQ.aspx

89. Recently, which one of the following currencies has been proposed to be added to the basket of IMF’s SDR?

(a) Rouble

(b) Rand

(c) Indian Rupee

(d) Renminbi

Solution: D

Justification: In the most recently concluded review (November 2015), the Executive Board of IMF decided that, effective October 1, 2016, the Chinese renminbi (RMB) will be included in the SDR basket as a fifth currency, along with the U.S. dollar, euro, Japanese yen and pound sterling.

https://www.imf.org/external/np/exr/facts/sdrcb.htm

90) With reference to the International Monetary and Financial Committee (IMFC), consider the following statements :

1. IMFC discusses matters of concern affecting the global economy, and advises the International Monetary Fund (IMF) on the direction of its work.

2. The World Bank participates as observer in IMFC’s meetings.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

(a) 1 only

(b) 2 only

(c) Both 1 and 2

(d) Neither 1 nor 2

Solution: C

Justification: Statement 1: The IMFC advises and reports to the IMF Board of Governors on the supervision and management of the international monetary and financial system, including on responses to unfolding events that may disrupt the system.

Statement 2: A number of international institutions, including the World Bank, participate as observers in the IMFC’s meetings.

http://www.imf.org/external/np/exr/facts/groups.htm

91. ‘Rashtriya Garima Abhiyaan’ is a national campaign to

(a) rehabilitate the homeless and destitute persons and provide them with suitable sources of livelihood

(b) release the sex workers from their practice and provide them with alternative sources of livelihood

(c) eradicate the practice of manual scavenging and rehabilitate the manual scavengers

(d) release the bonded labourers from their bondage and rehabilitate them

Solution: C

Justification: It is the “National Campaign for Dignity and Eradication of Manual Scavenging”.

http://pib.nic.in/newsite/efeatures.aspx?relid=126057

92) With reference to the cultural history of medieval India, consider the following statements :

1. Siddhas (Sittars) of Tamil region were monotheistic and condemned idolatry.

2. Lingayats of Kannada region questioned the theory of rebirth and rejected the caste hierarchy.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

(a) 1 only

(b) 2 only

(c) Both 1 and 2

(d) Neither 1 nor 2

Solution: C

Justification: Statement 1: Siddhas believe in oneness of the transcendental being in the world as well as charity towards men. This clearly shows they believed there is only one God, i.e. monotheism.

The Siddhar tradition has also been contrasted with the Bhakti tradition. Their attitude against idol worship and their stress on yoga, knowledge right conduct distinguished them from Bhakti cults. So, clearly 1 is correct.

Statement 2: Basavanna (founder of Lingayatism) rebelled against the rigid practices of the caste system then prevalent in orthodox Hindu society and eventually began expounding his own philosophy with a casteless society at its core.

Lingayats believed that there is no rebirth and on death the devotee reunites with Shiva never coming back to the World. So, 2 is also correct.

Source: Religion, Philosophy, Yoga: A Selection of Articles By Jean Filliozat http://tinyurl.com/gnbkxhs

http://tinyurl.com/jophqme

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lingayatism

93. Which of the following best describes the term ‘import cover’, sometimes seen in the news?

(a) It is the ratio of value of imports to the Gross Domestic Product of a country

(b) It is the total value of imports of a country in a year

(c) It is the ratio between the value of exports and that of imports between two countries

(d) It is the number of months of imports that could be paid for by a country’s international reserves

Solution: D

Justification: Import Cover measures the number of months of money available in the national bank to cover the cost of imports.

This is to avoid a BoP crisis, so that early preventive action can be taken.

India has an import cover of around 12 months presently.

http://articles.economictimes.indiatimes.com/2015-12-29/news/69379605_1_import-cover-foreign-exchange-reserves-import-bill

94. Consider the following pairs :

Community sometimes In the affairs of mentioned in the news

1. Kurd : Bangladesh

2. Madhesi : Nepal

3. Rohingya : Myanmar

Which of the pairs given above is/are correctly matched?

(a) 1 and 2

(b) 2 only

(c) 2 and 3

(d) 3 only

Solution: C

Justification: Kurds are an ethnic group in the Middle East. So, 1 is incorrect.

Madhesis were recently in news due to Nepal’s constitutional debates about their representation in the polity. So, 2 is correct.

Rohingyas muslims and Buddhist rakhines have been indulging into fights and riots in Myanmar, which has frequently been in news. So, 3 is correct.

http://www.bbc.com/news/world-middle-east-29702440

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/2015_Rohingya_refugee_crisis

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Madhesi_people

95) With reference to ‘Organization for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (OPCW)’, consider the following statements :

1. It is an organization of European Union in working relation with NATO and WHO.

2. It monitors chemical industry to prevent new weapons from emerging.

3. It provides assistance and protection to States (Parties) against chemical weapons threats.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

(a) 1 only

(b) 2 and 3 only

(c) 1 and 3 only

(d) 1, 2 and 3

Solution: B

Justification: Statement 1: The Organisation for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons is the implementing body of the Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC). It is not under EU. So, 1 is wrong.

Statement 2 and 3: The OPCW Member States share the collective goal of preventing chemistry from ever again being used for warfare, thereby strengthening international security.

To this end, the Convention contains four key provisions:

destroying all existing chemical weapons under international verification by the OPCW;

monitoring chemical industry to prevent new weapons from re-emerging;

providing assistance and protection to States Parties against chemical threats; and

fostering international cooperation to strengthen implementation of the Convention and promote the peaceful use of chemistry.

https://www.opcw.org/about-opcw/

96) With reference to ‘Pradhan Mantri Fasal Bima Yojana’, consider the following statements:

1. Under this scheme, farmers will have to pay a uniform premium of two percent for any crop they cultivate in any season of the year.

2. This scheme covers post-harvest losses arising out of cyclones and unseasonal rains.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

(a) 1 only

(b) 2 only

(c) Both 1 and 2

(d) Neither 1 nor 2

Solution: B

Justification: Statement 1: Farmers’ premium has been kept at a maximum of 2 per cent for foodgrains and oilseeds, and up to 5 per cent for horticulture and cotton crops. So, it is different for different crops. 1 is incorrect.

Statement 2: Post-Harvest Losses coverage is available only up to a maximum period of two weeks from harvesting for those crops which are allowed to dry in cut and spread condition in the field after harvesting against specific perils of cyclone and cyclonic rains and unseasonal rains. So, 2 is correct.

https://india.gov.in/spotlight/pradhan-mantri-fasal-bima-yojana

97. In which of the following regions of India are you most likely to come across the `Great Indian Hornbill’ in its natural habitat?

(a) Sand deserts of northwest India

(b) Higher Himalayas of Jammu and Kashmir

(c) Salt marshes of western Gujarat

(d) Western Ghats

Solution: D

Justification: Great Hornbills are found in three separate areas in South Asia; in the Western Ghats, the Himalayan foothills in Uttaranchal to south Nepal and Bhutan, and north-east India.

They occur in primary evergreen and moist deciduous forest, mainly in lowland forest, but they can be found up to 2,000 meters in some areas.

All other options apart from D can thus be easily eliminated.

http://www.hornbills.in/great-hornbill.php

98) Which of the following are the key features of ‘National Ganga River Basin Authority (NGRBA)?

1. River basin is the unit of planning and management.

2. It spearheads the river conservation efforts at the national level.

3. One of the Chief Ministers of the States through which the Ganga flows becomes the Chairman of NGRBA on rotation basis.

Select the correct answer using the code given Below.

(a) 1 and 2 only

(b) 2 and 3 only

(c) 1 and 3 only

(d) 1, 2 and 3

Solution: A

Justification: The statements 1 and 2 were picked verbatim from CPCB Website, we quote, “River basin will be the unit of planning and management. This is an internationally accepted strategy for integrated management of rivers.

Accordingly, a new institutional mechanism in the form of National Ganga River Basin Authority (NGRBA) will spearhead river conservation efforts at the national level. Implementation will be by the State Agencies and Urban Local Bodies”.

Statement 3: PM Chairs the NGRBA.

http://cpcb.nic.in/ngrba/about.html

99. Why does the Government of India promote the use of Neem-coated Urea’ in agriculture?

(a) Release of Neem oil in the soil increases nitrogen fixation by the soil microorganisms

(b) Neem coating slows down the rate of dissolution of urea in the soil

(c) Nitrous oxide, which is a greenhouse gas, is not at all released into atmosphere by crop fields

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